NameMary Ann Ainsley , 6042
Death Date1 Jul 1896
Spouses
Birth Dateabt 1821
Chr Date9 Apr 1821 Age: <1
Chr PlaceEastcheap, London, England
Death Date11 Apr 1871 Age: 50
Death PlaceBritish Columbia, Canada
Burial PlaceVictoria, B.C., Canada
FatherWilliam Mouat , 6037 (1774-)
MotherElizabeth Ingles , 6038 (1796-)
Family ID958
Marr Date8 Aug 1854
Marr PlaceSt Dunstan's, Stepney, East London
ChildrenEthel Margaret , 6043
Notes for William Alexander (Spouse 1)
266Early life
William Alexander Mouat was baptised on 9 April 1821 in Eastcheap , in the City of London . He was born into a seafaring family. His father William Mouat - born 1774 in Kirkwall , Orkney - was a master mariner and later a coal merchant and a coal meter in the City of London. William Alexander’s mother was Elizabeth Ingles born 1796 in East London. He had two older siblings: Elizabeth Ann Mouat who married John Edward Foster a master mariner and John Ingles Mouat who, according to a statement by his great nephew, drowned at sea off the coast of Madagascar. Captain Foster and his wife Elizabeth Ann were early settlers in New Zealand. William Alexander Mouat began his sailing career as an apprentice in 1835 at the age of fourteen. In 1844 he served as second mate of the Hudson’s Bay Company steam bark Vancouver under the command of Captain Andrew Cook Mott. He sailed to North America and arrived in Fort Vancouver , in what is now Washington state and then the “capital” of the Hudson’s Bay Company’s Columbia District , on 27 March 1845. From 28 April 1845 until the end of February 1847 he was first officer of the Cadboro under Captain James Scarborough. In 1848 he acted as a pilot on the Columbia River and in early 1849 he was master of a Californian ship. ]
The Mary Dare Later in 1849 he served as first officer of the Mary Dare, again under James Scarborough. In the summer of 1849 he was at Beaver Harbour, British Columbia, where Captain William Henry McNeill of the SS Beaver was establishing Fort Rupert, British Columbia . On 30 July 1849 Charles Beardmore of the Hudson’s Bay Company reported to Dr William Fraser Tolmie that Scarborough had kept Mouat “under arrest during his whole stay here” and that by 25 July Mouat had been “so driven and bullied that he left the ship putting himself under Captain McNeill’s protection”. Scarborough then “declared him as a deserter and broke open his chest and proceeded to the extremity of the law… We shall be anxious to hear how it is settled as this officer is a favourite with us all”. Presumably the Hudson’s Bay Company exonerated William Mouat as in 1850 he became master of the Mary Dare. On 28 November 1851 the Beaver, under the command of Captain Charles E Stuart towed the Mary Dare, under William Mouat’s command, to Budd Inlet , on which the American Olympia custom-house was situated. The customs inspectors reported that the Mary Dare had a packet of refined sugar on board weighing two hundred and thirty pounds in violation of American laws which stated that refined sugar cannot be imported in packages of less than six hundred pounds. Beaver had on board “a quantity of Indian trading goods not upon the manifest, to the value of $500; also that both vessels before reaching the port of entry, had anchored at Fort Nisqually for fifteen hours; that six passengers and their baggage had been landed without permit”. Charles Stuart fled in a canoe to avoid being prosecuted for the infringement. After a court case and the payment of customs duties by the Hudson’s Bay Company the two ships were released. This was one incident in several concerning disputes over the territorial boundaries between Canada and America. These territorial disputes eventually led to the Pig War between America and England - a conflict started by the shooting of a pig. In 1854 the Mary Dare was due for renewal of her twelve-year registration and as no facilities existed for her inspection in British Columbia, William Mouat took her back to England. He left Victoria in December 1853 and arrived in London on 27 May 1854. During the voyage he was accused by his first officer, Mr Williams, of disgraceful conduct in making a physical assault on the second officer of the Mary Dare in the presence of the crew. The outcome of the accusation is unknown.

Marriage Whilst in England, on 8 August 1854, he married Mary Ann Ainsley at St Dunstan’s, Stepney , East London. Mary’s father was a master mariner from Tyneside and at least three captains attended their marriage - William Alexander’s father William Mouat, his father-in-law Matthew Ainsley and his brother-in-law John Foster. William Alexander and his new wife left England on 1 September 1854 and travelled back to Victoria as passengers on the Marquis of Bute. Fellow passengers included the Reverend Edward Cridge, chaplain to the Hudson’s Bay Company and his new wife also called Mary. Mary Ann Mouat was described as “a gentle, educated lady” and “an accomplished musician … who brought her piano with her on the ship”. They arrived back in Victoria on 1 April 1855. William and Mary Mouat had eight children between 1855 and 1867. Edward Cridge became dean of the Anglican cathedral in Victoria, British Columbia, and later withdrew with about three hundred and fifty of his congregation (of whom William Mouat was one) and joined the Reformed Episcopal Church . Cridge was consecrated a bishop in 1876.

The Labouchere
The Hudson’s Bay Company gave William Mouat command of the Otter on 16 April 1854, appointed him as a chief trader on 27 February 1860 and made him master of the Enterprise on 3 April 1862. Gold was discovered in 1865 on the Big Bend of the Columbia River (the Big Bend Gold Rush ) and William Mouat was asked to investigate the possibility of steam navigation on the Kamloops Lake , Shuswap Lake and the Thompson River between the lakes. His findings were favorable and the Hudson’s Bay Company built the steamship Marten at Savona’s Ferry, British Columbia on the Thompson River at the west end of Kamloops Lake. In 1866 The Hudson’s Bay Company won the contract for taking mail between Victoria and San Francisco . William Mouat, “one of the most careful and reliable men that ever handled a wheel”, was given command of the Labouchere , which he took to San Francisco on 15 February 1866 to be fitted out for the accommodation of passengers. The British Colonist newspaper reported “The steamer Labouchere, under the command of Captain Mouat, the popular captain of the Enterprise , is announced to sail for San Francisco direct, carrying Her Majesty’s mails under the new contract, on the 15th instant”. The Labouchere left San Francisco , after her refit, at six o’clock in the evening on 14 April 1866 in thick and foggy weather. She struck rocks off Point Reyes . After several hours trying to pump the water out, Captain Mouat issued the order to abandon ship. After all the available boats were launched eighteen men were left on board. Captain Mouat addressed them: “Gentlemen, we are now on a sinking ship without boats. Let us do something to save our lives”. Accordingly they began to make rafts. Captain Mouat produced some cigars and remarked that “if they had to go down, they might as well go down smoking”. Before the ship sank the men were rescued by the sailing ship Andrew. William Mouat had displayed “admirable coolness, bravery and forethought” in saving his passengers but the official enquiry censured him for “very gross negligence…in not swinging the Labouchere to ascertain the deviation of the compasses before leaving San Francisco the steering apparatus having been shifted from aft forward” during the refit, and also for not having taken sufficient care of Her Majesty’s mail.

Death William Mouat now took command of the Marten which became the first steamer to ply the Thompson River making her maiden trip on 26 May 1866. However, the Big Bend mines were a failure and the Marten was laid up. William Mouat was posted to Fort Rupert, British Columbia , where he remained in charge until his death on 11 April 1871 while on a canoe trip from Knight Inlet to the fort. He was buried in Victoria , and his tombstone can still be seen in Pioneer Square, adjoining Christ Church Cathedral. William Mouat was survived by seven of his children and by his wife Mary Ann (who died 1 July 1896). One of their daughters, Ethel Margaret, married Dr James Douglas Helmcken, grandson of Sir James Douglas , colonial governor of Vancouver Island and British Columbia . William and Mary Ann Mouat are commemorated in Victoria. The Fort Victoria Brick Project has outlined the boundaries of the original fort with a double row of bricks, each engraved with the name of a pioneer.

References
Smith, Dorothy Blakey (2000). ”Mouat, William Alexander” . Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto/Université Laval. .
“Labouchere” . Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Shipwreck Database. .
Seizure of the Beaver and the Mary Dare 1851 - Pacific Sail Training Association
Shipwrecked - One of Frank Sylvester’s Memoranda - the Original Victoria to San Francisco Commuter by Geoffrey Castle
A Pioneer, 1851 - William John Macdonald
The Pioneer Women of Vancouver Island 1843 - 1866 - N. de Bertrand Lugrin
Project Gutenberg’s Some Reminiscences of old Victoria, by Edgar Fawcett
The British Colonist



1901 Census Victoria
110 Superior St
……Rems: MIV1: Helen Graham Mouat, d.o.Capt & Mrs William Alexander Mouat mar Richard Jones, 1895; she d.17 Dec 1932. DN, Times, 17 Dec 1932, p.13: Helen Grahame Jones, b.w.o. Richard Jones, r.1635 Hollywood Cr, b.Victoria in 1860, d.o. the late Capt & Mrs W.A. Mouat.
01/09/50 Mouat, Anthony C., m, br-in-law, s, 3 Jul 1864, 36, BC, CE, Book keeper.

cor Fort & Langley St
07/29/44 Helmcken, Jas. D., m, head, m, 8 Feb 1858, 43, BC, CE, M.D.
……Rems: BDWBC: James Douglas Helmcken, mar1: 19 Jun 1886, Mary Jane (d.1887), d.o.James Halliday of DFS, SCT, & mar2: 18 Jul 1888, Ethel Margaret (1865-1941), d.o.Capt Mouat (incorrectly entered as White in the book).
07/29/45 Helmcken, Ethel M., f, wife, m, 18 Dec 1867, 33, BC, CE.
……Rems: MIV1: Mrs James Douglas Helmcken, nee Ethel M. Mouat, 1865-1941, d.o.William Alexander Mouat.
07/29/46 Helmcken, Cecilia M., f, dau, s, 14 Aug 1889, 11, BC, CE.
07/29/47 Helmcken, Edith H.D., f, dau, s, 5 Apr 1892, 9, BC, CE.
07/29/48 Helmcken, Ethel, f, dau, s, 21 Dec 1893, 7, BC, CE.
07/29/49 Helmcken, John Sebastion, m, son, s, 22 Sep 1896, 4, BC, CE.
07/29/50 Helmcken, Ainsley Jas., m, son, s, 28 Sep 1900, 7 m, BC, CE.
07/30/01 Lee, Ah, m, cook, m, 10 Oct ----, 46, CHN, to Can: 1880, Meth, Cook.
07/30/02 Logie, Christian, m, dom, s, 1 Jan ----, 35, SCT, to Can: 1888, PSb, Domestic

Dictionary of Canadian Biography
MOUAT, WILLIAM ALEXANDER, master mariner and HBC employee; b. in 1821 in London, Eng., son of William Mouat; m. 8 Aug. 1854 at Stepney, England, to Mary Ann Ainsley, by whom he had seven children; d. 11 April 1871 at Knight Inlet, B.C.
William Alexander Mouat went to sea in 1835 and served three years as an apprentice before becoming an officer. He came to the Pacific coast of North America as second mate of the Hudson’s Bay Company bark Vancouver (Capt. Andrew Cook Mott) arriving at Fort Vancouver on 27 March 1845. On 28 April he was transferred to the Cadboro as first officer and served in her until the end of February 1847 when Captain James Scarborough “put him off duty.” He is believed to have acted as pilot for the Columbia River bar in 1848, and he himself says that in 1849 he was “master of an American vessel at California.” In the summer of 1849 he was again serving as first officer under Scarborough, but this time in the Mary Dare at Beaver Harbour, where Fort Rupert was being established by Captain William Henry McNeill of the Beaver. On 30 July 1849 an eye-witness (Charles Beardmore of the HBC) reported to Dr William Fraser Tolmie* that Scarborough had kept Mouat “under arrest during his whole stay here,” and that by 25 July Mouat had been “so driven & bullied that he left the ship putting himself under Captain McNeil[l’s] protection.” Scarborough then “declared him a deserter & broke open his chest & proceeded to the extremity of the law.” “We shall be anxious to hear how it is settled,” added Beardmore, “as this officer is a favorite with us all.” The HBC apparently found for Mouat, since in 1850 he was master of the Mary Dare and took her home in 1853, arriving in London on 27 May 1854. But Mouat was now himself accused by his own first officer of “disgraceful conduct” in making a physical assault on the second officer of the Mary Dare in the presence of the crew. Later episodes in Mouat’s career would seem to indicate that although he was a kindly man, generous to the unfortunate, he had a quick temper and would brook no interference in what he considered the performance of his duty.
The outcome of the Mary Dare incident of 1854 is not known, but it was as a passenger on the Marquis of Bute that Mouat returned with a bride to Victoria on 1 April 1855. On 16 April he was given command of the HBC steamer Otter, then plying between Victoria and Fort Langley, and on 27 Feb. 1860 he was made a chief trader. He was master of the Otter until 3 April 1862 when he was transferred to the newly acquired Enterprise for her first trip to the Fraser. When in 1865 gold was discovered on the Big Bend of the Columbia River, he was sent to look into the possibility of steam navigation on the Kamloops and Shuswap lakes and the Thompson River which connected them. He reported the scheme “entirely practicable,” and the HBC ordered the Marten to be built at Savona’s Ferry.
Early in 1866 the HBC was awarded the contract for direct mail service between Victoria and San Francisco, and Captain Mouat, “one of the most careful and reliable men that ever handled a wheel,” was given command of the Labouchere, which he took to San Francisco on 15 Feb. 1866 to be fitted out for the accommodation of passengers. On her second voyage after the refit, on 114 April 1866, the Labouchere was lost off Point Reyes, her captain displaying “admirable coolness, bravery and forethought” in saving his passengers. But the official inquiry censured Mouat for “very gross negligence . . . in not swinging the Labouchere to ascertain the deviation of the compasses before leaving San Francisco, the steering apparatus having been shifted from aft forward” during the refit, and also for not having taken sufficient care of her majesty’s mails.
The HBC now placed Mouat in command of the Marten, which made her maiden trip on 26 May 1866, the first steamer to ply the Thompson River. But the Big Bend mines proved a failure, and at the close of the season the Marten was laid up and Mouat was posted to Fort Rupert, where he remained in charge until his death in 1871 while on a canoe trip from Knight Inlet to the fort. Mouat was buried in Victoria, and his tombstone, the inscription almost obliterated, may still be seen in Pioneer Square, adjoining Christ Church Cathedral.
HBC Arch. A.33/4, f.413; B.113/c/1, f.16; C.1/459; 0.1/462; C.1/625, f.208 (log of Otter). PABC, Charles Beardmore correspondence; Thomas Lowe journal, 1843– 50; William Alexander Mouat correspondence, 1859–66. British Columbian (New Westminster, B.C.), 28 April 1866. British Columbia Tribune (Yale, B.C.), 28 April, 7, 21 May, 4 June 1866. Cariboo Sentinel (Barkerville, B.C.), 31 May 1866. Colonist (Victoria), 1863–71.
Lewis and Dryden’s marine history of the Pacific northwest (Wright). Denys Nelson, Fort Langley, 1827– 1927, a century of settlement in the valley of the lower Fraser River (Vancouver, 1927; 2nd ed., 1947), 15–26. Walbran, B.C. coast names. N. R. Hacking, “Steamboating on the Fraser in the ‘sixties,” BCHQ, X (1946), 1–37.

Parishregister.com-
William Alexander Mouat  married Mary Ann Ainsley on 8 August 1854  at  St Dunstan's. He began his sailing career as an apprentice in 1835 at the age of fourteen. In 1844 he served as second mate of the Hudson's Bay Company steam bark Vancouver under the command of Captain Andrew Cook Mott. From 28 April 1845 until the end of February 1847 he was first officer of the Cadboro under Captain James Scarborough.

History of Pacific Northwest-Oregon and Washington 1889 Vol 1, page 347-
SEIZURE OF STEAMER BEAVER AND BRIG MARY DARE.                                                             
Though justice had been delayed, though relief had long been denied, yet Congress granted the prayer of the people of Washington made through their representatives. On the 4th of August, 1854, the sum of $15,000 was appropriated, or so much thereof as might be necessary to enable the State Department to reimburse those who had fitted out that expedition of mercy to relieve citizens of the United States from captivity among British Indians, an expedition commanded alike by patriotism and humanity.
     Other interesting incidents happened contemporaneously with the disastrous enterprise of the gold miners who sailed in the sloop Georgianna. On the 28th of November, the Hudson's Bay Company's steamer Beaver, Captain Charles E. Stuart, towed that company's brigantine Mary Dare, Captain William A. Mouat, to Budd's Inlet, on which the Olympia custom-house was situated. Both vessels anchored about two miles north of the town and were immediately boarded by the deputy collector (Elwood Evans), who was accompanied by two temporary inspectors (Colonel Isaac N. Ebey and Andrew J. Simmons), who were respectively assigned to duty on the two vessels. the Beaver, employed as a towboat, reported in ballast. The Mary Dare, from Fort Victoria, had for her cargo the usual annual supply of company goods and merchandise for the post, Fort Nisqually.
     Colonel Ebey, inspector on the Beaver, reported, December 1st: "The Beaver has no ballast except coals. I found, however, a quantity of Indian trading goods no upon the manifest, to the value of $500; also that both vessels, before reaching the port of entry, had anchored at Fort Nisqually for fifteen hours; that six passengers and their baggage had been landed without permit, and that boats during all that time were passing between the shore and both vessels." As to the Mary Dare, Inspector Simmons reported the presence of a package of refined sugar weighing 230 pounds, in violation of section 103 of the Act of Congress approved March 3, 1799, which provides: "Refined sugar cannot be imported in packages of less than six hundred pounds weight, under penalty of forfeiture of the sugar and the vessel in which it is imported."
     Technically, to say the very least, both vessels had utterly disregarded the plain requirements of the United States revenue laws. In both instances, there was apparent a manifest violation of the letter of that law, the execution of which, according to its letter, was the bounden duty of the collector. This time he insisted upon an observance of the law. He literally obeyed the published instructions of the Treasury Department. On December 1st, he ordered the seizure of both vessels. Those seizures necessitated a special term of the court of the third judicial district of Oregon Territory (1), which was the first term of a district court held at Olympia. That court was held January 20, 1852, by Hon. William Strong, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Oregon Territory, and Judge of the third judicial district, which included Lewis county. David Logan and Simon B Marye, of the Portland bar, accompanied the Judge. The former acted as United States Attorney. The latter appeared as counsel for the Hudson's Bay Company, the owner of the seized vessels. Quincy A. Brooks was appointed acting clerk. Alonzo M. Poe was appointed Deputy United States Marshal; and he accepted a bond of #13,000 for the Mary Dare and the sugar. Messrs. Daniel R. Bigelow, Isaac N. Ebey, Quincy A. Brooks, Simpson P. Moses and Elwood Evans, were admitted to practice as attorneys of the courts of Oregon.
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